1–28 Лютий, 2022
Introduction. The argan tree Argania spinosa L. Skeels, an endemic species of Morocco with tropical affinities, is typically a multi-purpose tree, and plays a very important socio-economic role in this country, while maintaining an ecological balance. This species is the only representative of the tropical family Sapotaceae in Morocco . The tree is the second largest forest species, after oak and before cedar, and can live up to 200 years . The tree was recognized as a biosphere reserve since 1998 and was declared as a “protected species” by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) . The argan tree has very specific chemical compositions which fortify their potential in particular for use in food, cosmetic, and medical preparations. The argan tree supports the livelihood of rural populations as a source of income and therefore they depend on the aganeraie. The various botanical parts of the tree also make a large contribution to biodiversity. All botanical parts of the tree are exploited: the wood, leaves and fruits, the kernels of which yield argan oil, one of the rarest and most expensive oils in the world.
Introduction. Chronic heart failure (HF) is a major illness and cause of death in the aged. While the emphasis of its management is shifting toward early interventions and preservation of quality of life, as well as lowering mortality [1, 2], the paucity of specific clinical manifestations hampers the diagnosis and treatment of patients presenting in the early stage of chronic HF. Physical examination and several laboratory tests, including echocardiogram, radionuclide imaging, cardiopulmonary exercise, and hemodynamic measurements, contribute to grading the severity of chronic HF. However, because most signs are non-specific, this process requires advanced procedural and interpretative skills that are often unavailable to non-cardiologists. Biomarkers are substances derived from organs, which can be measured and evaluated as indicators of normal biology, pathogenic process, or pharmacological response to a therapeutic intervention. Their measurement is not subject to inter-observer variability. An ideal biochemical marker should be a prognostic indicator, should assist in the early diagnosis of HF, reliably reflect the therapeutic response, and help in grading the risk associated with each stage of HF. While several biochemical markers have been studied for their prognostic value in the setting of chronic HF, their clinical applications have not been systematically discussed. This review summarizes our understanding of biochemical markers as they currently apply to chronic HF.